There is, but it is simply known by different names so it doesn’t register in our brain as a ‘Hindu’ thing. There are many religions born out of the same ethos which Hinduism espouses, these religions were spread by Hindu philosophers to other lands, over time the wisdom got translated in native languages (Chinese, Indonesian etc) so they refer to those concepts with different names in their own language. Check this :
“The path”, “the way” are basically Chinese terms for what we call Dharma in Sanskrit. There is a near complete interchangeability between all their concepts with ours, with, of course, Chinese names. What we call the Varna here, the other Asian countries refer to as the family honour code. If you do good then earn more goodwill and respect for your your clan (kula/ gotra/ varna), that is why Chinese and Japanese men would want to die in war, to add to the Karma points of their kula (clan). Yin and Yang correlate to good Karma and bad Karma.
There is even a Chinese Hanuman called Sun Wukong:
Instead of carrying a saffron flag with ‘Hindu Om’ on it, he carries a saffron flag with Chinese alphabets.
The exact same thing applies to Japan. Here is a Japanese Ganesha:
Here’s the Shiv Linga in Japan :
Common Terms in Sanskrit/Chinese/Japanese
Archarya – Master Achali Ajari
Dharma – Law FA Ho
Pratima – movement warrior techniques of the Hindu ksatreyas Hsing
Sunyatapani – Tang-Shou Karate/To De
Dharmahasta Chuan Fe Kempo
Marga – The Way Tao Do
Guhya-Sutra Mi-Ching Mikkyo
Nagarjuna Lung Shu Ryuju/Ryusho/Ryumyo
Mudra – ritual gesture Yin In
Mandala a special zone or area Mantolo Mandara
Vajramukti Ching Kang, Chieh T’o Kongogedastsu
Sangha – congregation or group followers Seng So
Narya – strong or manly Na-Li Nara, Naha
Nata Na-Pa, Na-Ra Nara, Napa, Nafa
Yoga – to yoke Yui Cha Yu Ga”
Indonesia has its own local flavours of Hinduism whereby their university emblems and currency bears images of Ganesha.
There are similar parallels to Hindu concepts all over the world, with different pseudonyms, that is why it feels as if it exists only in a small part of India. It is actually a universal phenomenon. As for the Varna system in particular, you can find those four types of people even in western societies. The people who are most useful to society are the ones who create the most value, and therefore paid higher salary and get more respect in their society. Their definition of ‘adding value’ has simply been transposed by an economic criteria (instead of a Dharmic/social criteria) but the system of ‘incremental respect’ is the same there.
Saudi Arabia, which is the beacon of the purest form of Islam, considers non-Arab Muslims (like the ones in the subcontinent) to be Hind-Al-Masakeen, which means ‘the lowly slaves of Hind’. How is it that this religion, which claims to be a champion of equality under one God and offers liberation from the allegedly discriminatory Hindu social order, differentiate between two different groups of the same religion? Is that not a caste system in itself? And if it is, why aren’t the liberals raising their voices against it? But we all know why!!